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疫情居家,如何防治哺乳期乳腺炎

乳(ru)腺科 盛安康(kang) 发布于: 2021-08-31 点击 328 次

哺乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)期乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)腺炎是乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)房(fang)的一种局部炎症,可(ke)在(zai)哺乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)期任何时(shi)候发生,常见于(yu)产(chan)后(hou)6周内,初(chu)产(chan)妇常见,相关病(bing)因有(you)多(duo)种,包括(kuo): 乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)头受损、喂(wei)养(yang)(yang)不频繁、乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)汁清(qing)除不充分、母(mu)亲或(huo)(huo)婴儿生病(bing)、产(chan)奶(nai)过(guo)度、快速断奶(nai)、乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)房(fang)受压 (胸(xiong)罩或(huo)(huo)汽车座椅(yi)安全(quan)带过(guo)紧(jin))、乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)管堵塞、母(mu)亲紧(jin)张或(huo)(huo)过(guo)度疲劳以及母(mu)亲营(ying)养(yang)(yang)不良等。

哺乳(ru)(ru)期(qi)乳(ru)(ru)腺炎的(de)典型(xing)表(biao)现为乳(ru)(ru)母(mu)一侧(ce)或双侧(ce)乳(ru)(ru)房出现质硬(ying)、发(fa)红(hong)的(de)压痛区域,有时伴(ban)(ban)有发(fa)烧。在乳(ru)(ru)房感染的(de)早(zao)期(qi)阶段,可能仅仅是乳(ru)(ru)房的(de)肿(zhong)痛,并(bing)不(bu)伴(ban)(ban)有发(fa)热;而晚期(qi)感染者可能出现大面积乳(ru)(ru)房肿(zhong)胀,伴(ban)(ban)表(biao)面皮(pi)肤出现红(hong)斑等改变。

哺(bu)乳(ru)(ru)期乳(ru)(ru)腺炎发生的主要原因是泌乳(ru)(ru)不(bu)畅、乳(ru)(ru)汁淤(yu)积。因此,防治(zhi)首(shou)要任务就(jiu)是有(you)效排(pai)出乳(ru)(ru)汁,并强调预(yu)防优于治(zhi)疗(liao)。目前(qian)扬(yang)州还处于疫情防控(kong)阶段,居民外出就(jiu)医不(bu)便,因此如何有(you)效预(yu)防哺(bu)乳(ru)(ru)期乳(ru)(ru)腺炎的发生便是重(zhong)中之重(zhong)。

首先,产后(hou)需尽早、积极哺(bu)(bu)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru),防(fang)止乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)汁(zhi)淤积。哺(bu)(bu)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)前热(re)敷乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)房促进(jin)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)汁(zhi)通(tong)畅。如果(guo)婴儿(er)吸(xi)(xi)吮(shun)能力不(bu)足或(huo)婴儿(er)食(shi)量小而乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)汁(zhi)分泌多者,在哺(bu)(bu)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)后(hou)建(jian)(jian)议手动(dong)或(huo)用吸(xi)(xi)奶器(qi)吸(xi)(xi)尽乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)汁(zhi);有些婴儿(er)可能会在吮(shun)吸(xi)(xi)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)汁(zhi)的(de)时(shi)候将母亲乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)头(tou)(tou)(tou)的(de)皮(pi)(pi)肤(fu)弄破,如果(guo)是轻度乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)头(tou)(tou)(tou)破裂仍(reng)建(jian)(jian)议哺(bu)(bu)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru),每次哺(bu)(bu)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)前后(hou)需清洗(xi)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)房。如果(guo)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)头(tou)(tou)(tou)皮(pi)(pi)肤(fu)破裂较为严重(zhong),哺(bu)(bu)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)时(shi)疼痛剧(ju)烈,无法耐(nai)受(shou)哺(bu)(bu)乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru),建(jian)(jian)议用吸(xi)(xi)奶器(qi)吸(xi)(xi)出后(hou),用奶瓶哺(bu)(bu)食(shi)小儿(er);对于乳(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)(ru)头(tou)(tou)(tou)上的(de)痂(jia)皮(pi)(pi),可待其自行脱痂(jia),不(bu)要强(qiang)行撕去(qu)。

其(qi)次,重视乳(ru)房尤其(qi)是乳(ru)头(tou)护理。哺乳(ru)前要清洗乳(ru)头(tou),尤其(qi)是乳(ru)头(tou)破裂者,不建议用酒精清洗。避免对乳(ru)房的(de)挤(ji)压,穿衣服要宽松(song)。同时要注意不能让婴儿口含(han)乳(ru)头(tou)入睡(shui),这(zhei)也是乳(ru)腺炎(yan)发生的(de)一个重要原因(yin)。

如(ru)果出现(xian)(xian)(xian)乳(ru)腺(xian)炎征兆,该(gai)怎么办(ban)?一(yi)旦出现(xian)(xian)(xian)堵(du)奶(nai)、乳(ru)房疼痛和红肿(zhong)等情况(kuang)(kuang),应及时(shi)就诊(zhen)。医(yi)生会(hui)根(gen)据(ju)病情选择相应抗生素治疗(liao),如(ru)果已形成局(ju)部脓(nong)肿(zhong),一(yi)般(ban)需要(yao)外(wai)科切开引(yin)流(liu)。乳(ru)母(mu)(mu)方面(mian),要(yao)注意彻底排空乳(ru)房,控制总(zong)热(re)量摄入,宜(yi)清(qing)淡饮食(shi)。有(you)的(de)乳(ru)母(mu)(mu)出现(xian)(xian)(xian)堵(du)奶(nai)时(shi)会(hui)想(xiang)着通过按摩等手段,但如(ru)果手法不(bu)专业,反(fan)而会(hui)加重乳(ru)管(guan)(guan)或乳(ru)腺(xian)内小血管(guan)(guan)损伤,甚(shen)至造成炎症扩(kuo)散。因此,在发生以(yi)上异(yi)常情况(kuang)(kuang)时(shi),应到(dao)正(zheng)规(gui)医(yi)院乳(ru)腺(xian)专科接受治疗(liao)。早期发现(xian)(xian)(xian),早期正(zheng)规(gui)治疗(liao),能够(gou)有(you)效控制乳(ru)腺(xian)炎发展,让宝宝得到(dao)持续而健康的(de)母(mu)(mu)乳(ru)喂(wei)养(yang)。

( 乳腺科  盛安康)


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(扬州市红十字医院、扬州市妇幼保健计划生育服务中心、扬州市儿童医院)
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